What Causes Skin Condition in Pets?

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Does my pet have a skin condition?
Your pet's skin should be smooth and soft with no flaking, redness or signs of irritation. It should be neither too dry nor too oily and have no areas of hair loss. For an accurate diagnosis and treatment options, always consult your veterinarian.

If you notice your pet's skin is rough, flaky or irritated and it is scratching, biting or licking it more than usual, then it might be suffering from a skin condition and your veterinarian may recommend tests to identify the exact reason. Common causes include:


Allergies
Your pet may be allergic to either food or environmental factors like dust, pollen or mold.
Parasites
Fleas, lice and mites can all cause mild to severe skin irritation.
Hormonal
Imbalances
Pets with too much or too little of certain hormones are prone to skin problems.
Infections
Bacterial infections can cause skin problems.

The food your pet eats plays an important role in its overall health and well-being. A balanced nutrition is an essential part of an active and healthy lifestyle. When your pet has a skin condition, it becomes even more important to feed it the right type of food.


Some skin conditions can be cleared up quickly while others need lifelong management. The good news is, most pets with skin conditions can be helped if you feed the right type of food even if the cause of the condition is not dietary. Some important nutrients that can help heal protect your pet's skin include:


Protein
High-quality protein provides the building blocks for natural cell repair. For pets that consume a non-vegetarian diet, feeding unique protein sources such as venison or duck can help reduce reaction in pets with a food allergy or intolerances to more common ingredients.


Essential Fatty Acids
A food containing high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, found naturally in fish oil, will help nourish and protect your pet's skin to prevent dryness.


Antioxidants
Vitamin E and other antioxidants are vital in helping to maintain your pet's healthy immune system, and protect it from cellular oxidation caused by free radicals. However, no berries please.

Combining these nutrients in a single pet food provides a convenient way to manage your pet's skin condition.



For a list of poisonous dog food, please refer below:

Note: If you suspect your pet might have eaten any food that might be toxic, contact his/her veterinarian immediately.

NAME
INFORMATION
Alcohol
Do not give your dog sips of any alcoholic beverage. Ingestion can lead to injury, disorientation, sickness, urination problems or even coma or death from alcohol poisoning. Some dogs may be attracted to alcoholic drinks so don't leave one sitting where a dog can reach it.
Anti-freeze
Acute cases of antifreeze toxicity (when an animal consumes antifreeze) often present as if the animal is intoxicated with alcohol. This is an emergency situation, and life threatening within hours. Please see your veterinarian immediately. Success of treatment depends on quick treatment.
Apple
The seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides which can result in cyanide poisoning.
Apricot
The seed pit contains cyanogenic glycosides which can cause cyanide poisoning.
Avocado
Avocado contains a toxic element called persin which can damage heart, lung and other tissue in many animals. Avocados are high in fat content and can trigger an upset stomach, vomiting or even pancreatitis. The seed pit is also toxic and if swallowed can become lodged in the intestinal tract where it may cause a severe blockage which will have to be removed surgically. Since avocado is the main ingredient in guacamole be sure and keep your dog out of the dip.
Baby Food
Before feeding any baby food to your dog check the ingredients to see if it contains onion powder, which can be toxic to dogs. Feeding baby food in large amounts may result in nutritional deficiencies.
Bones
Cooked bones can be very hazardous for your dog. Bones become brittle when cooked which causes them to splinter when broken. The splinters have sharp edges that have been known to become stuck in the teeth, caused choking when caught in the throat or caused a rupture or puncture of the stomach lining or intestinal tract. Especially bad bones are turkey and chicken legs, ham, pork chop and veal.
  • Symptoms of choking are:
    • Pale or blue gums
    • Gasping open-mouthed breathing
    • Pawing at face
    • Slow, shallow breathing
    • Unconscious, with dilated pupils
Raw bones (uncooked in any way) like chicken necks or beef knuckle bones are generally considered safe and help keep your dog's teeth healthy by removing plaque. A caution - bones have a high calcium content and too many can cause severe constipation.
Bread Dough
When bread dough is ingested your dog's body heat causes the dough to rise in the stomach. During the rising process alcohol is produced as the dough expands. Pets who have eaten bread dough may experience abdominal pain, bloat, vomiting, disorientation and depression. A pet needs to eat only a small amount to cause a problem, because bread dough can rise to many times its size.
Broccoli
The toxic ingredient in broccoli is isothiocynate. While it may cause stomach upset it probably won't be very harmful unless the amount fed exceeds 10% of the dogs total daily diet.
Caffeine
Beverages with caffeine (like soda, tea, coffee) acts as a stimulant and can accelerate your pet's heartbeat to a dangerous level. Pets ingesting caffeine have been known to have seizures, some fatal.
Candy
Sugarless candy containing xylitol has been recognized by the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) to be a risk to pets (first published July 2004). This compound can cause liver damage and death in some dogs. This information is recent and some vets may not be familiar with xylitol poisoning. If your dog has eaten sugarless candy you can contact the NAPCC by telephone, 1-888-426-4435 for more information.
Cat Food
Cat food is not formulated for canine consumption. It is generally too high in protein and fats and is not a balanced diet for a dog.
Cherries
The seed pit contains cyanogenic glycosides which can cause cyanide poisoning.
Chocolate
Chocolate contains theobromine, a compound that is a cardiac stimulant and a diuretic. When affected by an overdose of chocolate, a dog can become excited and hyperactive. Due to the diuretic effect, it may pass large volumes of urine and it will be unusually thirsty. Vomiting and diarrhea are also common. The effect of theobromine on the heart is the most dangerous effect. Theobromine will either increase the dog's heart rate or may cause the heart to beat irregularly. Death is quite possible, especially with exercise. 

Symptoms of chocolate poisoning include: vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, hyperactivity, irregular heartbeat and seizures.

Larger quantities of chocolate can poison or even kill a medium or large dog. An ounce or two of chocolate may not seem like much but it can be lethal to a small dog that weighs 10 lbs. or less. After their dog has eaten a large quantity of chocolate, many pet owners assume their pet is unaffected. However, the signs of sickness may not be seen for several hours, with death following within twenty-four hours.

Cocoa powder and cooking chocolate are the most toxic forms. These forms of chocolate contain ten times more theobromine than milk chocolate. Even licking a substantial part of the chocolate icing from a cake can make a dog sick. The next most dangerous forms are semi-sweet chocolate and dark chocolate, with milk chocolate being the least dangerous. A dog needs to eat more than a 250gm block of milk chocolate, however the high amount of fat found in milk chocolate can lead to an attack of pancreatitis.
  • 1 ounce per pound of body weight (2 ounces per kg of body weight) for milk chocolate.
  • 1 ounce per 3 pounds of body weight (1 ounce per 1.5 kg body weight) for semi-sweet chocolate
  • 1 ounce per 9 pounds of body weight (1 ounce per 4 kg) for baker's chocolate.
During many holidays such as Christmas, New Year's Day, Easter and Halloween, chocolate is often accessible to curious dogs, and in some cases, people unwittingly poison their dogs by offering them chocolate as a treat or letting them lick a frosting bowl.
Cigarettes
see Tobacco Products
Citrus Oil Extracts
Citrus oil extracts ave been known to cause vomiting.
Corn Cobs
Many dogs have suffered and, in some cases, died after eating corn-on-the-cob, because the corn cob caused a partial or complete intestinal obstruction. Never allow your dog access to corn cobs.
Dairy Products
Most dairy products are digested poorly by dogs who have little or none of the enzyme required to digest the lactose in milk. Just like lactose-intolerant people, lactose-intolerant dogs can develop excessive intestinal gas (flatulence) and may have foul-smelling diarrhoea. It is best to avoid most dairy products altogether, although small amounts of cheese or plain yoghurt are tolerated by most dogs, since these products have less lactose than most.
Food Preparation Items
When chewing food remnants from
  • aluminum foil or pans
  • candy wrappers
  • paper plates and cups
  • plastic forks, spoons, knives
  • plastic beverage rings from six-packs
  • roasting bags
  • turkey skewers, lacing
a dog may swallow pieces which can cause abdominal discomfort, intestinal blockage, internal bleeding and in some cases, death. There is also a possibility if choking or suffocation. Dispose of food preparation items in a manner that your dog or another animal cannot get to it.
Eggs (Raw)
Raw egg whites contain a protein called avidin, which can deplete your dog of biotin, one of the B vitamins. Biotin is essential to your dog's growth and coat health. Additionally, raw eggs are often contaminated with bacteria, such as salmonella, and you could end up giving your dog food poisoning in addition to biotin deficiency.

Symptoms of biotin depletion are hair loss, weakness, growth retardation and skeleton deformity. If your dog is suffering from these symptoms the situation is urgent, and veterinary treatment is needed. Cooked eggs are high in protein and make an excellent treat. It is only the raw eggs that should not be given to your dog.
Grapes or Raisins
Although the minimum lethal dosage is not known, grapes and raisins can be toxic to dogs when ingested in large quantities. The symptoms are gastrointestinal signs including vomiting and diarrhea, and then signs of kidney failure with an onset of severe kidney signs starting about 24 hours after ingestion. The amount of grapes eaten varied between 9 oz. and 2 lbs., which worked out to be between 0.41 and 1.1 oz/kg of body weight. It has been reported that two dogs died directly from the toxicity, three were euthanized due to poor response to treatment and five dogs lived.

Due to the severity of the signs and the potential for death, the veterinarians at the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) advocate aggressive treatment for any dog believed to have ingested excessive amounts of grapes or raisins, including inducing vomiting, stomach pumping and administration of activated charcoal, followed by intravenous fluid therapy for at least 48 hours or as indicated based on the results of blood tests for kidney damage.
Hops
Spent hops as used in making beer.
Household Products
Detergents, Perfumes, Bleach
Liver
Many dog treats and prepared foods contain liver so it may surprise you to find liver on the bad foods list. In small amounts liver is good for your dog, but if the liver intake is too high it can cause nutritional problems because liver has a high content of vitamin A. Consumption of this vitamin in large amounts can lead to vitamin A toxicity, or hypervitaminosis A. If your dog eats raw liver or consumes three servings of cooked liver a week it could lead to bone problems. Feeding liver to a dog taking Vitimin A supplements can lead to an overdose of Vitamin A.
Symptoms of hypervitaminosis A are deformed bones, excessive bone growth on the elbows and spine, weight loss and anorexia. If left unchecked, hypervitaminosis A has in some cases caused death.
Macadamia Nuts
The toxic compound is unknown but eating as few as six nuts without the shell has been known to cause elevated body temperature, accelerated heartbeat, tremors in the skeletal muscles, and weakness or paralysis of the hindquarters. Affected dogs have difficulty or are unable to rise, are distressed and usually panting.Some affected dogs have had swollen limbs and showed pain when the limb was manipulated. Dogs did recover from the muscle weakness and pain and it is not known if there have been any fatal cases. Macadamia butter is included in this warning.
Mouldy or Spoiled Foods
The common mold found growing on many foods contain toxins such as Penicillium mold toxins or tremorgenic mycotoxins. Symptoms of poisoning include severe tremors and seizures that can last for hours or even days. This is considered an emergency and medical treatment is needed to control the seizures and detoxify the dog.

Spoiled foods can cause food poisoning. Symptoms of food poisoning are severe vomiting, diarrhea and shock.

Prevention is the best course, don't feed your dog moldy food left in the refrigerator and don't allow him to raid your garbage cans or compost bin (or your neighbor's).
Mushrooms
Mushroom poisoning can be fatal if certain species of mushrooms are eaten. The most commonly reported severely toxic species of mushroom in the US is Amanita phalloides, but other Amanita species are also toxic. They can cause severe liver disease and neurological disorders. The recommendation is to induce vomiting when these mushrooms are ingested and to give activated charcoal, as well. Supportive treatment for liver disease may also be necessary.
Nutmeg
Nutmeg is reported to be a hallucinogenic when ingested in large doses. Nutmeg has been known to cause tremors, seizures and in some cases, death.
Nuts
Nuts in general are not good for dogs as their high phosphorus content may lead to bladder stones.
Onions
Onions cause hemolytic anemia, which means that the red blood cells break down leaving the dog short of oxygen. Onion poisoning can occur with a single ingestion of large quantities or with repeated meals containing small amounts of onion. The condition generally improves once the dog is prevented from eating any further onion. The poisoning may occur a few days after the dog has eaten the onion. At first dogs affected by onion poisoning show gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea, weakness and show little or no interest in food. The red pigment from the burst blood cells appears in an affected dog's urine making it dark colored. The dog will experience shortness of breath because the red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body are reduced in number. Other symptoms are elevated body temperature, confusion, and increased heart rate. Seek veterinary care immediately.

The quantity of onions, raw or cooked, required is high enough that dogs can generally tolerate small doses of onions without any problem and moderate amounts of onion without apparent signs of onion poisoning. All forms of onion can be a problem including dehydrated onions, raw onions, cooked onions and table scraps containing cooked onions and/or garlic. Left over pizza, Chinese dishes and commercial baby food containing onion, sometimes fed as a supplement to young pets, can cause illness.

While garlic also contains the toxic ingredient thiosulphate, it seems that garlic is less toxic and large amounts would need to be eaten to cause illness.
Peaches
The seed pit contains cyanogenic glycosides which can cause cyanide poisoning.
Pears
The seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides which can cause cyanide poisoning.
Plants
Dogs can become extremely ill or even die from eating poisonous plants. Keep all unknown types of plants and any plants suspected of being poisonous out of reach of your pet.
Plastic Food Wrap
Dogs have been known to ingest pieces of plastic wrap while trying to eat food remnants left on its surface. Plastic food wrap can cause choking or intestinal obstruction. Dispose of plastic wrap in a manner that your dog or other animals cannot get to it.
Plums
The seed pit contains cyanogenic glycosides which can cause cyanide poisoning.
Play Dough
Home made play dough contains high levels of salt. When ingested this can cause salt poisoning which can be fatal.
Potatoes
Solanum alkaloids can be found in green sprouts and green potato skins, which occurs when the tubers are exposed to sunlight during growth or after harvest. The relatively rare occurrence of actual poisoning is due to several factors: solanine is poorly absorbed; it is mostly hydrolyzed into less toxic solanidinel; and the metabolites are quickly eliminated. Cooked, mashed potatoes are fine for dogs, and are actually quite nutritious and digestible.
Raisins or Grapes
See Grapes
Rich Fatty Foods
Rich, fatty foods can be very dangerous to dogs susceptible to attacks of pancreatitis. Often you may not know that your dog is susceptible until he is very sick with his first attack. It is often the smaller, more energetic breeds like miniature or toy poodles, Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, and other small terrier-type dogs who seem particularly prone. However, any dog may have a problem. It is best to avoid these foods altogether.
  • turkey skin
  • bacon, sausages, hot dogs
  • fruit cake, plum pudding
  • deep-fried
Signs of pancreatitis generally include an acute onset of vomiting (sometimes with diarrhea) and abdominal pain, which may be evidenced as a hunched posture or "splinting" of the abdomen when picked up. The dog may become very sick quickly and often needs intensive fluid and antibiotic therapy.
Rhubard
Leaves
Salmon (Raw)
Commonly called "Salmon Poisoning Disease" (or SPD), this can be a problem for anyone who feeds their dog a raw meat diet that includes raw salmon, but it is mostly seen in the Pacific Northwest and California. The cause is infection by a rickettsial organism called Neorickettsia helminthoeca. The rickettsial organism does not directly infect the dog but is carried instead by a parasite (a flatworm or fluke) called Nanophyteus salmincola through two intermediate hosts - freshwater snails and salmonid fish.

Nanophyteus salmincola are found to infect some species of freshwater snails. The infected snail is ingested by the salmon as part of the food chain. Neither the fluke nor the rickettsial organism are lethal to the fish. The dog is exposed only when it ingests the secondary host - an infected fish. After the dog ingests the fish, the encysted fluke larvae burst and embed in the dog's intestinal tract and the rickettsia are introduced. The cycle continues when ova are excreted in dog faeces to infect more snails.

A sudden onset of symptoms occur 5-7 days after ingestion of fish. Initial symptoms include lethargy and anorexia. Peaking of temperature between 104-107 in the first two days and then slowly returns to normal. Persistent vomiting by the fourth day. There is bloody diarrhea within a few days of vomiting onset. The diarrhoea is often bright yellow colour. There are enlarged lymph nodes.

In the acute stages, gastrointestinal symptoms are quite similar to canine parvovirus. Nasal and ocular symptoms can resemble canine distemper. If left untreated, SPD has a mortality rate of up to 90%. SPD can be diagnosed with a faecal sample and is treatable if caught in time. Treatment may include supportive hydration, an antibiotic to kill the rickettsial organism, and a "wormer" to kill the parasite. Improvement may be seen in as little as two days.

Prevention is simple, cook all fish before feeding any to your dog. If you are outdoors hiking or camping or live near streams and rivers were salmon spawn, keep a close eye on your dog on don't let your pet run free to insure that no fish carcasses are ingested. Please see your vet immediately if you suspect your dog has ingested raw salmon.
Salt
Iodized salt and salty foods can cause stomach ailments and pancreatitis. Some dogs, especially large breeds, have been known to gulp too much water after eating salty foods and developed a life threatening condition called bloat during which the stomach fills with gas and twists, leading to a painful death unless emergency treatment is received immediately.
Table Scraps
Table scraps are not a nutritionally balanced diet for a dog. If fed at all, scraps should never be more than 10% of the diet. Fat should be trimmed from meat and all cooked bones discarded. Also see "Rich, Fatty Foods" above.
Tobacco Products
Cigarettes and cigarette butts, cigars, pipe tobacco, nicotine patches, nicotine gum and chewing tobacco can be fatal to dogs if ingested. Signs of nicotine poisoning can appear within an hour and include hyperactivity, salivation, panting, vomiting and diarrhea. Advanced signs include muscle weakness, twitching, collapse, coma, increased heart rate and cardiac arrest. If anyone who lives in or visits your home smokes, tell them to keep tobacco products out of reach of pets and to dispose of butts immediately. If you suspect your dog has ingested any of these seek veterinary treatment immediately.
Tomatoes and Tomato Plants
These contain atropine which can cause dilated pupils, tremors and irregular heartbeat. The highest concentration of atropine is found in the leaves and stems of tomato plants, next is the unripe (green) tomatoes and then the ripe tomato.
Water
Yet another surprise to find on the "Bad Foods List" is water, but there are dangers lurking in water that you need to be aware of.
  • Stagnant water in ponds, bogs, small lakes, canals, seasonal creeks and other places where water sets still may contain harmful bacteria (Leptospira interrogans) and parasites such as giardia.
  • Toilet water with fresheners or cleaners in the tank or bowl contain toxic chemicals.


Author: Ang Mei Hwa
                http://www.hillspet.com


Copyright © 2013 Sandhya Maarga Holistic Living Resources
Holistic Living Annex (MARCH 2013)

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